Controversial French artist Jean Dubuffet (1901 – 1985) antagonized the established art world by producing a new, universally understood creative language called Art Brut (Raw Art). Originally a wine merchant, Dubuffet vehemently defied artistic traditions by creating stark, primitive pieces inspired by the artwork of children and the insane, who he believed were uncontaminated by culture. Indifferent to concepts of beauty and ugliness, his subjects were portrayed as dehumanized individuals lost amidst the chaos of cramped spaces. In many of his works, he incorporated a thick impasto of asphalt, pebbles and glass. Although Dubuffet's artwork was often reviled, it strongly impacted the emergence of Pop Art and neo-Dadaism.